Scott Fitzgerald , and the pair formed a friendship of "admiration and hostility". Hadley would much later recall that Hemingway had his own nicknames for everyone, and that he often did things for his friends; she suggested that he liked to be looked up to. She didn't remember precisely how the nickname came into being; however, it certainly stuck. Pauline Pfeiffer joined them in January and against Hadley's advice, urged Hemingway to sign a contract with Scribner's. He left Austria for a quick trip to New York to meet with the publishers, and on his return, during a stop in Paris, began an affair with Pfeiffer, before returning to Schruns to finish the revisions in March.
The Sun Also Rises epitomized the post-war expatriate generation,  received good reviews, and is "recognized as Hemingway's greatest work". Pfeiffer, who was from a wealthy Catholic Arkansas family, had moved to Paris to work for Vogue magazine. Before their marriage, Hemingway converted to Catholicism. Cosmopolitan magazine editor-in-chief Ray Long praised "Fifty Grand", calling it, "one of the best short stories that ever came to my hands By the end of the year Pauline, who was pregnant, wanted to move back to America.
Hemingway suffered a severe injury in their Paris bathroom when he pulled a skylight down on his head thinking he was pulling on a toilet chain. This left him with a prominent forehead scar, which he carried for the rest of his life. When Hemingway was asked about the scar, he was reluctant to answer. Pauline had a difficult delivery; Hemingway fictionalized a version of the event as a part of A Farewell to Arms. He realized how Hadley must have felt after her own father's suicide in , and he commented, "I'll probably go the same way.
He had finished it in August but delayed the revision. The serialization in Scribner's Magazine was scheduled to begin in May, but as late as April, Hemingway was still working on the ending, which he may have rewritten as many as seventeen times. The completed novel was published on September He wanted to write a comprehensive treatise on bullfighting, explaining the toreros and corridas complete with glossaries and appendices, because he believed bullfighting was "of great tragic interest, being literally of life and death.
During the early s, Hemingway spent his winters in Key West and summers in Wyoming, where he found "the most beautiful country he had seen in the American West" and hunted deer, elk, and grizzly bear.
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The surgeon tended the compound spiral fracture and bound the bone with kangaroo tendon. Hemingway was hospitalized for seven weeks, with Pauline tending to him; the nerves in his writing hand took as long as a year to heal, during which time he suffered intense pain. Meanwhile, he continued to travel to Europe and to Cuba, and—although in he wrote of Key West, "We have a fine house here, and kids are all well"—Mellow believes he "was plainly restless".
In , Hemingway and Pauline went on safari to East Africa. Their guide was the noted "white hunter" Philip Percival who had guided Theodore Roosevelt on his safari. During these travels, Hemingway contracted amoebic dysentery that caused a prolapsed intestine, and he was evacuated by plane to Nairobi, an experience reflected in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro". On Hemingway's return to Key West in early , he began work on Green Hills of Africa , which he published in to mixed reviews.
Hemingway bought a boat in , named it the Pilar , and began sailing the Caribbean. Like Hadley, Martha was a St. Louis native, and like Pauline, she had worked for Vogue in Paris.
Of Martha, Kert explains, "she never catered to him the way other women did". This was the separation phase of a slow and painful split from Pauline, which began when Hemingway met Martha Gellhorn. Pauline and the children left Hemingway that summer, after the family was reunited during a visit to Wyoming; when his divorce from Pauline was finalized, he and Martha were married on November 20, in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Hemingway moved his primary summer residence to Ketchum, Idaho , just outside the newly built resort of Sun Valley , and moved his winter residence to Cuba.
Gellhorn inspired him to write his most famous novel For Whom the Bell Tolls , which he started in March and finished in July It was published in October In January , Martha was sent to China on assignment for Collier's magazine. Hemingway was in Europe from May to March When he arrived in London, he met Time magazine correspondent Mary Welsh , with whom he became infatuated. Martha had been forced to cross the Atlantic in a ship filled with explosives because Hemingway refused to help her get a press pass on a plane, and she arrived in London to find him hospitalized with a concussion from a car accident.
She was unsympathetic to his plight; she accused him of being a bully and told him that she was "through, absolutely finished". Hemingway accompanied the troops to the Normandy Landings wearing a large head bandage, according to Meyers, but he was considered "precious cargo" and not allowed ashore. Hemingway later wrote in Collier's that he could see "the first, second, third, fourth and fifth waves of [landing troops] lay where they had fallen, looking like so many heavily laden bundles on the flat pebbly stretch between the sea and first cover".
Late in July, he attached himself to "the 22nd Infantry Regiment commanded by Col. Charles 'Buck' Lanham , as it drove toward Paris", and Hemingway became de facto leader to a small band of village militia in Rambouillet outside of Paris. On August 25, he was present at the liberation of Paris as a journalist; contrary to the Hemingway legend, he was not the first into the city, nor did he liberate the Ritz.
As soon as he arrived, however, Lanham handed him to the doctors, who hospitalized him with pneumonia; he recovered a week later, but most of the fighting was over. He was recognized for having been "under fire in combat areas in order to obtain an accurate picture of conditions", with the commendation that "through his talent of expression, Mr. Hemingway enabled readers to obtain a vivid picture of the difficulties and triumphs of the front-line soldier and his organization in combat".
Hemingway said he "was out of business as a writer" from to during his residence in Cuba. The Hemingway family suffered a series of accidents and health problems in the years following the war: in a car accident, he "smashed his knee" and sustained another "deep wound on his forehead"; Mary broke first her right ankle and then her left in successive skiing accidents. A car accident left Patrick with a head wound and severely ill. However, both projects stalled, and Mellow says that Hemingway's inability to continue was "a symptom of his troubles" during these years.
In , Hemingway and Mary traveled to Europe, staying in Venice for several months. While there, Hemingway fell in love with the then year-old Adriana Ivancich. The platonic love affair inspired the novel Across the River and into the Trees , written in Cuba during a time of strife with Mary, and published in to negative reviews. In , while in Africa, Hemingway was almost fatally injured in two successive plane crashes.
He chartered a sightseeing flight over the Belgian Congo as a Christmas present to Mary. On their way to photograph Murchison Falls from the air, the plane struck an abandoned utility pole and "crash landed in heavy brush". Hemingway's injuries included a head wound, while Mary broke two ribs. He briefed the reporters and spent the next few weeks recuperating and reading his erroneous obituaries. After the plane crashes, Hemingway, who had been "a thinly controlled alcoholic throughout much of his life, drank more heavily than usual to combat the pain of his injuries.
He modestly told the press that Carl Sandburg , Isak Dinesen and Bernard Berenson deserved the prize,  but he gladly accepted the prize money. Writing, at its best, is a lonely life.
Organizations for writers palliate the writer's loneliness but I doubt if they improve his writing. He grows in public stature as he sheds his loneliness and often his work deteriorates. For he does his work alone and if he is a good enough writer he must face eternity, or the lack of it, each day. From the end of the year in to early , Hemingway was bedridden.
During the trip, Hemingway became sick again and was treated for "high blood pressure, liver disease, and arteriosclerosis". In November , while staying in Paris, he was reminded of trunks he had stored in the Ritz Hotel in and never retrieved. Upon re-claiming and opening the trunks, Hemingway discovered they were filled with notebooks and writing from his Paris years. Excited about the discovery, when he returned to Cuba in early , he began to shape the recovered work into his memoir A Moveable Feast.
The last three were stored in a safe deposit box in Havana, as he focused on the finishing touches for A Moveable Feast. Author Michael Reynolds claims it was during this period that Hemingway slid into depression, from which he was unable to recover. The Finca Vigia became crowded with guests and tourists, as Hemingway, beginning to become unhappy with life there, considered a permanent move to Idaho. In he bought a home overlooking the Big Wood River , outside Ketchum, and left Cuba—although he apparently remained on easy terms with the Castro government, telling The New York Times he was "delighted" with Castro's overthrow of Batista.
After the Bay of Pigs Invasion , the Finca Vigia was expropriated by the Cuban government, complete with Hemingway's collection of "four to six thousand books". Hemingway continued to rework the material that was published as A Moveable Feast through the s. Hotchner to travel to Cuba to help him. Hotchner helped him trim the Life piece down to 40, words, and Scribner's agreed to a full-length book version The Dangerous Summer of almost , words.
Hemingway and Mary left Cuba for the last time on July 25, He set up a small office in his New York City apartment and attempted to work, but he left New York for good soon after. He then traveled alone to Spain to be photographed for the front cover of Life magazine. A few days later, the news reported that he was seriously ill and on the verge of dying, which panicked Mary until she received a cable from him telling her, "Reports false. Enroute Madrid.
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Love Papa. She quickly took him to Idaho, where physician George Saviers met them at the train. At this time, Hemingway was constantly worried about money and his safety. He became paranoid, thinking that the FBI was actively monitoring his movements in Ketchum.
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Edgar Hoover had an agent in Havana watch him during the s. Hemingway was back in Ketchum in April , three months after being released from the Mayo Clinic, when Mary "found Hemingway holding a shotgun" in the kitchen one morning. She called Saviers, who sedated him and admitted him to the Sun Valley Hospital; from there he was returned to the Mayo for more electroshock treatments. Mary called the Sun Valley Hospital, and a doctor quickly arrived at the house who determined that Hemingway "had died of a self-inflicted wound to the head".
Mary was sedated and taken to the hospital, returning home the next day where she cleaned the house and saw to the funeral and travel arrangements. Bernice Kert writes that it "did not seem to her a conscious lie" when she told the press that his death had been accidental.
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Family and friends flew to Ketchum for the funeral, officiated by the local Catholic priest, who believed that the death had been accidental. Hemingway's behavior during his final years had been similar to that of his father before he killed himself;  his father may have had the genetic disease hemochromatosis , whereby the inability to metabolize iron culminates in mental and physical deterioration.
A memorial to Hemingway just north of Sun Valley is inscribed on the base with a eulogy that Hemingway wrote for a friend several decades earlier: . It is a truly gripping story, told in a lean, hard, athletic narrative prose that puts more literary English to shame. Henry Louis Gates believes Hemingway's style was fundamentally shaped "in reaction to [his] experience of world war". Because he began as a writer of short stories, Baker believes Hemingway learned to "get the most from the least, how to prune language, how to multiply intensities and how to tell nothing but the truth in a way that allowed for telling more than the truth.
Hemingway believed the writer could describe one thing such as Nick Adams fishing in "The Big Two-Hearted River" though an entirely different thing occurs below the surface Nick Adams concentrating on fishing to the extent that he does not have to think about anything else. About 70 percent of the sentences are simple sentences —a childlike syntax without subordination. Jackson Benson believes Hemingway used autobiographical details as framing devices about life in general—not only about his life. For example, Benson postulates that Hemingway used his experiences and drew them out with "what if" scenarios: "what if I were wounded in such a way that I could not sleep at night?
What if I were wounded and made crazy, what would happen if I were sent back to the front? If you leave out important things or events that you know about, the story is strengthened. If you leave or skip something because you do not know it, the story will be worthless. The test of any story is how very good the stuff that you, not your editors, omit. The simplicity of the prose is deceptive. Hemingway offers a "multi-focal" photographic reality. His iceberg theory of omission is the foundation on which he builds. The syntax, which lacks subordinating conjunctions , creates static sentences.
The photographic " snapshot " style creates a collage of images. Carlo Weisz, who has fled from Trieste and secured a job as a foreign correspondent with the Reuters bureau, becomes the new editor. Weisz is, at that moment, in Spain, reporting on the last campaign of the Spanish civil war. In the desperate politics of Europe on the edge of war, a foreign correspondent is a pawn, worth surveillance, or blackmail, or murder.
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Full text of "Berlin diary: the journal of a foreign correspondent, "
Needless to say that I have actually liked it very much and I just wonder why I waited so much time to read it. The action takes place in one of the most interesting periods in the history of our Western civilization, a time period that, on the other hand, bears some similarities with our world today, and from which we can still draw some conclusions.
Besides, it is very well written and the story caught up with me from the very first pages. The novel, told in the third person by an omnipresent narrator, is extremely appealing in my view. Alan Furst is widely recognized as the master of the historical spy novel. Source: Penguin Random House. The Orion Publishing Group publicity page. Penguin Random House publicity page. Fuente: www. Afortunadamente me he encontrado recientemente con algunos otros autores como Eric Ambler, Charles Cumming, y Joseph-Kanon cuyos libros, estoy deseando leer en breve.
It is an inspiring, thrilling saga of everyday people forced by their hearts' passion to fight in the war against tyranny. By , hundreds of Italian intellectuals, lawyers and journalists, university professors and scientists had escaped Mussolini's fascist government and taken refuge in Paris. Fighting fascism with typewriters, they produced clandestine newspapers.
The Foreign Correspondent is their story. Carlo Weisz, who has fled from Trieste and secured a job as a foreign correspondent with the Reuters bureau, becomes the new editor. Weisz is, at that moment, in Spain, reporting on the last campaign of the Spanish civil war. In the desperate politics of Europe on the edge of war, a foreign correspondent is a pawn, worth surveillance, or blackmail, or murder. The Foreign Correspondent is the story of Carlo Weisz and a handful of antifascists: the army officer known as "Colonel Ferrara," who fights for a lost cause in Spain; Arturo Salamone, the shrewd leader of a resistance group in Paris; and Christa von Schirren, the woman who becomes the love of Weisz's life, herself involved in a doomed resistance underground in Berlin.
The Foreign Correspondent is Alan Furst at his absolute best—taut and powerful, enigmatic and romantic, with sharp, seductive writing that takes the reader through darkness and intrigue to a spectacular denouement. Languages English. From Alan Furst, whom The New York Times calls "America's preeminent spy novelist," comes an epic story of romantic love, love of country, and love of freedom—the story of a secret war fought in elegant hotel bars and first-class railway cars, in the mountains of Spain and the backstreets of Berlin.
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