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Bestselling Series. Proposition de [ This means that companies which want to [ We actively support this commitment and, in our endeavours outstrip the requirements of the international [ Should contracting authorities, in the cases referred to in Article 33 2 f , require the production of certificates drawn up by independent bodies attesting the compliance of the economic operator with [ The systematic appraisal of the environmental risks shall be based, [ Certification of the EMS and registration [ It shall also outline [ Grand-Ducal Regulation of 19 April on [ The Working Plan places an important emphasis on reinforcing and co-ordinating all the marketing efforts currently being made by the various consumer and environment NGOs, trade [ In Italy the implementation of [ EMAS is a rigorous program that can improve firm environmental performance and bring strong reputational benefits, but it competes for firm attention with the more established ISO ISO is a generic management system standard meant to reduce the effects of production on the environment; it also offers management mechanisms for the continual improvement of environmental performance.
EMAS requires an initial environmental review prior to the design and implementation of the EMS, as well as the public release of final audit findings.
EMAS certification also requires that each facility develop and disseminate its own environmental management system and external auditing that is meant to identify any liabilities. If organizations have multiple sites, then each site must meet the EMAS requirements as well. The presence of competing standards presents us with the question of whether there is pressure for firms to converge on one particular standard. Firms may choose to adopt particular EMS standards because reputational benefits are strong.
The first firms to adopt are likely to be those in nations that promote membership in that program. In these nations, we expect adoption to proceed gradually and incrementally, as national support helps firms to learn about the program in a predictable manner. As the pressures of standardization come to bear, firms in nations that do not promote the standard may struggle to suddenly catch up and become part of the standard.
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Consequently, we witness large spikes or punctuations in membership in these nations, as firms here do not benefit from the initial advantage of state information and support. Theories of punctuated equilibrium in public policy can help us to understand the dynamics with which firms coalesce or do not coalesce around voluntary regulatory standards. Baumgartner and Jones improved upon existing theories of incrementalism by showing that public organizations often make significant policy changes.
Jones, with others , refined this work to show that within some organizations, the costs of collective action are high and consequently, incremental decisions are prevented until finally the organization must react with substantial change or what appears to be an overreaction. Conversely, Robinson finds that in Texas, bureaucratized school districts enable decisions to be made more easily, thus making outputs more incremental and less subject to punctuated equilibrium. Here, we characterize the mass adoption decisions, in the presence or absence of government EMS support, as a policy process.
Hypothesis 2a: Adoption patterns in states that support EMAS will be characterized by smooth and incrementally increasing adoption patterns.
Hypothesis 2b: Adoption patterns in states that do not support EMAS will be characterized by large annual changes in membership. There is, however, a rival scenario to what can occur to the pace of adoption as a result of government EMAS support programs in the face of competition from ISO Reinecke et al. There has been evidence to support this point of view as well, as a number of EU countries experience lower than expected EMAS participation Neugebauer, ; Wurzel et al. This evidence suggests that in member states that do not support EMAS, adoption rates may be low to begin with and may simply remain that way with little change because of sufficient satisfaction with ISO Consequently, we also consider and test Hypothesis 3.
Hypothesis 3: Adoption patterns in states that do not support EMAS will experience little annual change. In summary, we test four hypotheses in our quantitative and qualitative analyses. First, we expect that EU member state support programs for EMAS will boost adoption rates in those states, while adoption rates will remain lower in states without such support. In order to test the effects of government EMAS support programs in the context of standardization pressures and competing standards, we present competing sets of hypotheses.
First, we hypothesize that if there is significant pressure to converge upon EMAS, member states with support programs will see smooth, gradual rates of adoption, while those without support programs will see disjointed, episodic rates of adoption, as firms struggle to catch up quickly.
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Our rival hypothesis postulates that standardization pressures for EMAS are weak in the face of a more dominant standard—ISO —and that member states that do not support EMAS will see little change in annual adoption rates, as they remain low overall. In the next section, we present our quantitative analysis of each hypothesis. This time span is important because it represents the time period after which data are available for both facilities and organizational adoptions of EMAS. This regulation promulgated the current requirements which mandate that companies produce statements on environmental performance, to be benchmarked against key indicators Wurzel et al.
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Thus, EMAS III represents a new iteration and a new phase of the program, which makes a convenient starting point for our data collection. Our dependent variable is the incidence of EMAS across time, countries, and types of adoptions. For our second model in which we examine the rate of change in registrations, we examine the absolute value of annual change in these membership shares. To examine the impact of EMAS promotion on member state adoption as well as pace of adoption, we analyze five potential types of promotion.
The document lists member states that participate in each type of promotion tool, as well as gives detailed information on what is involved in the use of each tool. It is this level of detailed, instructional information that separates this tool from the more general marketing and promotion tool. While such incentives have been shown to increase membership, they can also be risky for the government, if exemptions in regulatory requirements do not help to produce better compliance or environmental outcomes.
In this regard, the use of legal instruments represents a greater commitment to the adoption of EMAS than do marketing, promotion, and information tools which do not generate the same kind of risk. Rather, firms must absorb the costs of implementing their EMS, training staff in environmental management and creating new procedures to ensure that EMAS requirements are met European Union Commission, As the Commission document states, these costs are not insignificant and can be quite high for smaller firms.
This enables firms to streamline the process of ensuring all their sites comply with EMAS standards, but more importantly, it enables multinational companies to show that they have harmoniously strong environmental performance records across all their sites, regardless of the nations in which they are based. Table 1 presents a matrix of each EU member state and x marks to signify which promotional tools they utilize and which they do not.
Our empirical analysis proceeds as follows. First, we present descriptive data in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 includes information about the promotional tools employed by each member state, while Table 2 contains descriptive statistics related to the shares in membership figures for both organizations and sites for all years in the dataset — We use the descriptive data to make initial references about both the overall rate of adoption across EU nations, as well as the pace of adoption.
This model serves to test Hypothesis 1. Third, we present a GEE model estimating the impact of member state EMAS support on the annual level of change in adoptions, which provides tests for Hypotheses 2a, 2b, and 3. Table 2 shows that across countries and across time, there exists significant variation in the number of organizations or sites facilities with EMAS adoption.
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Yet the standard deviation for the number of organizations in a country in a given year that has EMAS is and for number of facilities it is Moreover, the ranges of those variables are also high. In this case, the average is a 0. Yet the standard deviations for these share measures are different. This variation provides initial support for Hypothesis 1, which predicts that there would be significant differences in adoption rates across member states.
Next, we analyze the kurtosis of the adoption distributions in order to understand the annual degree of change in shares of adoptions for Hypotheses 2a, 2b, and 3. This is similar to a hypothesis testing method developed by True, Jones, and Baumgartner in which they analyze the kurtosis of distributions to determine whether the changes are incremental or episodic and punctuated. In this case, nations with large annual changes in adoption rates have the distributions with the slender peaks representing few changes and the fat tails representing large changes. Recall that changes for shares of the total EMAS registrations are a measure of the pace of adoption and whether it is incremental or characterized by punctuations in adoptions.
There are three notable aspects of the data for changes in shares. First, the distributions are centered on zero. Second, the distributions have peak values that far exceed the peak of the hypothetical normal distribution. Table 2 shows that the mean change for organization shares is 0.
The standard deviations are different though, as the changes in site shares distribution is much wider.
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For changes in shares of organizations, the skewness measure is For changes in shares of sites, skewness is 7. The level of kurtosis provides evidence for the idea that there have been punctuations in the adoption of EMAS, as some nations experience sudden and high levels of changes in the rate of adoption. This indicates that shares for some countries change little over the time period in question, while some change quite a lot over the same time period.
Descriptive statistics are helpful for providing initial reference, but they fail to control for other important factors, so we now discuss our quantitative models. The different types of government support for EMAS complement and reinforce each other in important ways. Therefore, the next step is to consider their composite effect on the levels of adoption for organizations and sites, as well as on the changes in shares. To do so, we create a factor index for the five measures. The details of this procedure are located in the Technical Appendix, but we obtained a single factor from a principal factors analysis.
For this reason, we retained only one factor and then scored each country and each year based on the scoring coefficients from this model. We now test our hypotheses.
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The subsequent hypotheses examine the effect of government support on the volatility of adoption. We assess this by reshaping our dependent variable in the following way. The change of shares is folded at zero by obtaining the absolute value; we expect that support will reduce the size of the change in shares, but we believe it can affect both positive and negative changes in shares.
This reshaped dependent variable is available for both organizations and sites. To reiterate, our dependent variable in the first model which tests Hypothesis 1 is the annual share in or proportion of EMAS membership for each EU member state, for each year between and Our dependent variable in the second model which tests Hypotheses 2a, 2b, and 3 is the absolute value of annual changes in share in or proportion of EMAS membership for each EU member state, for each year between and Our primary independent variable is the single factor representing the five EU member state promotional tools for EMAS.
In addition, we assess the impacts of other variables that may also be associated with our dependent variables. We include the natural logarithm of per capita gross domestic product in chained dollars in order to capture economic activity across each nation and these data come from Eurostat.