Day hospital treatment in psychiatry. V, No 1, Psychosis and immigration. Br J Psych, vol. Positive conditioning in nocturnal enuresis. Okasha and A. Pp Hysteria, its presentation and management in Egypt. Mutabon - A controlled clinical trial in psychiatric patients. Ain Shams Med J. Preliminary psychiatric observations in Egypt.
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Presentation and outcome of obsessional disorders in Egypt. Okasha Ain Shams Med. Presentation of depression in Egyptian children. Kamel E. Neurol Psychiat Neurosurg, vol. Psychosocial Study of Stammering in Egyptian Children. Okasha , Z. Bishry , M. Essawi , M.
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A psychiatric study of Egyptian rheumatic arthritis. Okasha, N. Bahgat , A. Sadek and M. Proceedings of the Egyptian society of rheumatology, vol. Psychometry for organicity: validity and clinical use of some tests. Neurosurg, vol. A psychiatric survey of nocturnal enuresis in an Egyptian community. Okasha , O. Sherbini and M. A comparison of lorazepam diazepam and placebo in anxiety states. Okasha , A Sadek. An electromyographic study of functional impotence.
Ain Shams Med. A double blind trial for the clinical management of psychogenic headache. Okasha , H. Ghaleb and A. EEG screening of brain damage in psychiatric patients a validation study. Okasha , A. Ashour , M. Moustsfa and A. Neuro Psychiatric Neurosurge. Vol XIV No. Psychological study of stammering in Egyptian children. Okasha, Z. Bishry, M. Hassan Br. Electroencephalographic study of stammering. Okasha , S. Abdel Moneim , Z. Kamel and M. Mostafa Br. Biological factor in schizophrenia. Ain shams Medical Journal. Parameters for differentiation between hysterical and epileptic fits among Egyptian military recruits.
Ahmed Okasha ,M. Moustafa , M. Kamel , N. Arabic study of cases of functional sexual inadequacy. Demerdash Br. Psychiatry, vol. Insomnia: a differential parameter in Egyptian depressives. Kamel , F. Lotaif and Z. Psychosocial and neurological assessment of hyperkinetic children years. Okasha, A. Abdel Moneim E. XV, no. Objective evaluation of drug therapy in hyperkinetic children.
Kamel , S. Abdel Moneim , M. Michel and M. Mostafa E. The influence of Egyptian culture on psychiatric symptomatology. Egyptian Journal of Mental Health Vol 16 pp A combined psychiatric and surgical study of duodenal ulcer in Egyptians and its postoperative consequences. Kamel , A. Bahnassy , Z. Bishry , H. Abdallah , A. A psychometric study of cases of psychogenic sexual inadequacy. Ahmed Okasha, A. Demerdash and M. An anthropometric survey of cases of psychogenic sexual dysfunction. Okasha, M. A psychosocial study of accidental poisoning in Egyptian children.
Bishry, N. Osman , M. Kamel Br. A controlled double blind clinical trial between maprotilene and amitriptyline in depressive illness. Psychiatric morbidity among university students in Egypt. Ahmed Okasha , M. Kamel , a. Sadek , F. Bishry Br. Psychiatric symptomatology in Egypt.
Mental Health and Society, Laboratory and histochemical study of weight gain after amitriptyline. Kamel , Sawsan H. Hamza , Zeinab Bishry , A.
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Okasha , R. Comparative study on propanidid and thiopentone in ECT. Mental disorders in Pharaonic Egypt. Okasha Egypt. Okasha, S. Eid , Z. Bishry , F. Lotaif and J. Gouda Egypt. A cross-cultural study of cases of functional sexual disorders among Arabs. Demerdash , F. Lotaif , Z. Bishry and A. Attempted suicide: An Egyptian investigation.
Okasha and F. Acta Psychiatr Scand. Classification, biochemistry of depression and the mode of action of antidepressant drug. The impact of parental loss in childhood on adult anxiety states. Lotaif and A. Ashour Egypt. Drug induced extrapyramidal side effects in Egyptian schizophrenic patients. Okasha, H.
El Okbi, A. The brain's opium: Human beta-endorphins. A study of memory changes after ECT. Yousef , E. Lotaif , A. Ashour and A.
Histamine and schizophrenia: A validation study for skin response to intradermally injected histamine in schizophrenia. Mahullawy , Z. Bishry , A. Effectiveness of drug therapy in schizophrenia. Depression and anxiety during the menstrual cycle: A psychometric study. Is schizophrenia more than one disease?
Carpipramine: A disinhibitory drug in chronic schizophrenia. Prevalence of suicidal feelings in a sample of non-consulting medical students. Okasha , F. Ashour Br. Correlation between serum and salivary lithium levels. A psychological profile of patients manifesting warts: An Egyptian study.
The social readjustment-rating questionnaire: A study of Egyptians. Viruses as causes of psychiatric diseases. Mental disorders in brain tumors. Abdel Ghany , Z. Sadek , A. Evaluation of ECT today. Psychodemographic and study and psychiatric morbidity of academic difficulty in Egyptian university students.
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Suicide in Egypt. In Suicide in Asia and the Near East. Edited by Lee A. University of California Press. Psychiatrica Clinica, vol. Pharaonic through Islamic and modern psychiatry in Egypt. Psychiatry "The State of Art". Pichot and P. Plenum Press. New York. London, Academic difficulties among male Egyptian students: association with psychiatric morbidity.
Sadek and a. Psychiatry, , Academic difficulties among male Egyptian student: association with demographic and psychological factors. Young people and struggle against drug abuse in the Arab countries. Bulletin on Narcotics, vol. Visuo spatial abilities in Parkinsonian patients. Depression in Parkinsonian patients: An Egyptian study. Tardive dyskinesia in chronic Egyptian patients on neuroleptics. Attempted suicide in Egypt: a psychodemographic study. World Psychiatric Association, Montreal Canada.
Public policy and the chronic mentally ill: an Egyptian perspective. Psychiatric problems in general practice: an Egyptian perspective. Anticonvulsant as an adjuvant in the treatment of bipolar and schizophrenic disorders. Tardive dyskinesia in psychosis. A study of its prevalence, psychodemographic and clinical aspects among neuroleptic — treared Egytptian patients. R Elfiky Egypt. Psychiatry, , 9: Descriptive study of attempted suicide in Cairo.
Lotaif, N. El Mahalawy , A. Khalil and A. CT Scan findings in Schizophrenia A. Okasha, O. Madkour, M: Ghanem and A. Khalil, Egypt. Computerized EEG and evoked potential mapping of brain function. Is it worth treating cases of heroin abuse as inpatients? Parkinsonism and Depression: an Egyptian Study A. Younis, I. Youssef, A. Bipolar disorder now includes mania without depression unipolar mania in Leonhard's terms. The qualitative difference between bipolar and unipolar disorders arises out of evidence for different morbidity risks among first degree relatives. Kleist and Leonhard had assumed that the genetic loading in bipolar disorders was greater than in monopolar disorders.
The modern studies showed a significant bipolar morbid risk was present in the families of bipolar probands and not in the families of their unipolar depressive counterparts.
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However, the three monographs vary widely in their conclusions as to the overall morbidity in first degree relatives. This polarity-based distinction between bipolar disorders and unipolar depression is said to have been of benefit in research and clinically. So-called mood stabilizers are now widely prescribed. However, there is dispute about the definition of mood stabilizer. Although valproate, for example, has a license for the treatment of mania, evidence of its efficacy as a prophylactic mood stabiliser is questionable. Over recent years, the bipolar concept has expanded to include subtypes, which have lesser episodes of mania, called hypomania.
In particular, bipolar II disorder although this category is still not formally recognised in ICD was originally identified by David Dunner as those patients who had been hospitalized for depression, but their hypomanic episodes had not been severe enough to require hospitalization. However, hospitalization was not seen as an adequate criterion for defining the diagnostic threshold for mania from hypomania.
Bipolar II patients have never had a manic episode, but have had one or more episodes of major depression and at least one episode of hypomania, thus defined. Expanding the bipolar concept further, Hagop Akiskal, who is the first chapter contributor to this book on classification, diagnosis and boundaries of bipolar disorder, proposed a "soft bipolar spectrum" in What he meant by this was a more inclusive term for bipolar conditions beyond classical mania. The spectrum includes bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymic and hyperthymic traits, as well as those with familial bipolarity; it also includes hypomania apparently induced during antidepressant or other treatment bipolar III.
The term "spectrum" is, therefore, used to refer to the broad range of manifestations of bipolar disorder from core symptoms to temperamental traits. In clinical practice, it may include those patients with emotional lability, who may, for example, have otherwise been categorised as borderline personality disorder. Expanding the concept of bipolar disorder in this way has been controversial. It has been a particularly american phenomenon, although the practices have been followed in other countries.
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It may be reminiscent of the overinclusive use of the term schizophrenia in USA in the s. The US-UK Diagnostic Comparison Study demonstrated that American psychiatrists were using the term schizophrenia up to four times as commonly as their British counterparts. This finding contributed to a tightening of diagnostic criteria in DSM-III, particularly a narrowing of the definition of schizophrenia. Maybe we should now also have concern about the validity of the broadening of the concept of bipolar disorder.
The use of the diagnosis bipolar disorder has become variable and unreliable. Other chapters in the book are on prognosis, pharmacological treatment, psychosocial interventions, effects of gender and age on phenomenology and management, and the economic and social burden of bipolar disorder. Each of the chapters has several brief commentaries from experts in the field. The aim of treatment of bipolar disorder is euthymia.
Democritus regarded this state of being as one in which the soul is freed from all desire and unified with all its parts. He believed it should be the final goal of everything we do in life. Bipolar disorder could be said to have taken over from schizophrenia as the paradigmatic mental disorder in modern psychiatry.
It may say something about present-day psychiatry that its objective is now "tranquility of the soul" rather than unifying the mind-body split of schizophrenia. The question is whether we have progressed from controlling the brutish nature of mental illness, which was one of the reasons for the establishment of the asylums. The book is a learned, scholarly exposition of the consensus about bipolar disorder, but I am not sure how much it really helps us get in touch with people given this diagnosis.
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